Diagnostics in immunohematology includes typing of blood group antigens that are required prior to transfusion of blood products such as red blood cells, platelets, granulocytes or therapeutic plasma. Immunohematological testing also identifies potential antibodies that need to be identified prior to transfusion of blood products.
All immunohematological diagnostic protocols are performed in accordance with official German guidelines for laboratory testing of including "Richtlinie zur Anwendung von Blutprodukten" (Richtlinie Hämotherapie) of the Bundesärztekammer (BÄK), "Querschnittsleitlinien zur Therapie mit Blutkomponenten und Plasmaderivaten" of the BÄK, the "Transfusionsgesetz", the "Arzneimittelgesetz" and the "Richtlinie zur Qualitätssicherung labormedizinischer Untersuchungen" of the BÄK.
Spectrum of immunohematological methods
Pre-transfusion diagnostics +
Immunohematological testing is required for typing of specific antigens on blood cells prior to transfusion of red blood cells, platelets, granulocytes or therapeutic plasma. In addition, these diagnostic tests are required prior to transplantations of stem cells (or bone marrow) and various solid organs:
Typing of red blood cells antigens (AB0, Rhesus and Kell)
Direct antiglobulin test (Coombstest)
Extended typing of red blood cells antigens (serological and genotyping)
Extended immunohematological diagnostics +
Extended immunohematological diagnostics (serological and genotyping) are required for characterizing various immunohematological disorders including feto-maternal incompatibilities such as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), autoimmune hemolytic anemias and (auto) immune thrombocytopenias. Furthermore, clinical disorders caused by transfusion of blood products (e.g. antibody-mediated transfusion reactions) are determined by these immunohematological techniques.
Immunohematological diagnostics in hemolytic disorders and thrombocytopenias include:
- Determination of red blood cells antigens (serological and genotyping)
Identification of antibodies against red blood cell antigens
Titration of antibodies
Determination of platelet antigens (serological and genotyping)
Identification of antibodies against platelet antigens
Extended diagnostics of transfusion reactions